1900 – Boxer Rebellion. Boxers appear in Beijing and protest against Western influences. Christians are killed. Churches are burned. Railways are cut.
1900 - China declares war on foreign countries. Foreign legation quarter in Beijing surrounded by Boxers. Eight foreign countries combine forces to capture Beijing and occupy the capital for thirteen months. Widespread looting, killing, and rape in sections occupied by some foreign troops. The Qing court flees to Xi’an.
1901 – China signs peace agreement with the foreign countries. China would pay war indemnities. Foreign troops would be allowed in Beijing.
1903 – Revolutionaries led by Sun Yat-sen establishes a military school in Tokyo.
1904 – Japan declares war on Russia. Japanese and Russian troops battle in Manchuria. The Russians are defeated.
1905 – Sun Yat-sen organizes the Revolutionary Alliance in Tokyo. Members are from provinces all over China.
1905 – Russia and Japan sign a peace treaty recognizing Korea as a Japanese protectorate.
1906 – Edict issued to make preparations for a constitutional monarchy.
1906 – Japan and Russia sign a secret treaty dividing up their interests in Mongolia and Manchuria.
1908 – Completion of the first railway constructed by the Chinese. The railway connects Beijing and Zhangjiakou.
1908 – Cixi dies. Emperor Guangxu dies one day before. There are rumors that he is murdered. Three-year-old Puyi ascends to the throne.
1910 – Announcement is made to speed up political reform to achieve a constitutional monarchy.