January – In Taiwan, Commander of the First Armored Division attempts to stage a coup but fails.
January - France recognizes the People’s Republic of China.
February – Editorial in the People’s Daily titled “Learn from the People’s Liberation Army”, signifying an expansion of the role played by the PLA in political affairs.
July – Mao Zedong presents “On Khrushchev’s Phony Communism and Historical Lessons for the World”.
August – Tonkin Gulf incident. Two American destroyers are allegedly attacked by the North Vietnamese.
September – Peng Mingmin and his students issue a “Self-Rescue Declaration of Taiwan". The declaration asks native Taiwanese and mainlanders to work together to establish a democratic country independent of China. Peng is arrested and sentenced to eight years in prison, but receives amnesty in November, 1964.
October – Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union falls from power. Khruschev is replaced by Leonid Brezhnev.
October – The People's Republic of China explodes its first atomic bomb.