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Objective chronological listing of significant events leading up to modern China.

  • April – Sino-Indian Agreement on Tibet.
  • May - In Vietnam, communist forces defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu.
  • July - Vietnam is divided into North Vietnam and South Vietnam at the Geneva Conference.
  • July - Hu Feng and his followers challenge the rigidity of the Communist Party’s policies in the field of the arts and literature, demanding more freedom for individual artists. Hu and his followers would later be arrested as anti-revolutionaries.
  • September – Communists start shelling offshore islands occupied by Nationalist forces.
  • September - Manila Conference to set up the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).
  • September – National People’s Congress adopts a new constitution for the People's Republic of China.
  • December – Mutual defense treaty. Treaty of alliance signed between the United States and the Republic of China.