Objective chronological listing of significant events leading up to modern China.
January - Japanese gains full control of Manchuria.
January - Conflicts between Japanese expatriates and local Chinese in Shanghai.
January - Anti-Japanese riots in Shanghai.
January – Large-scale fighting breaks out between the Chinese 19th Route Army (Guangdong faction) and Japanese marines in Shanghai. Subsequent reinforcements bring the total number of Japanese troops to 50,000.
February - Communist army launches attacks in Jiangxi and Fujian provinces.
March - Ceasefire between Chinese and Japanese troops in Shanghai.
March - Manchukuo is formally established in Manchuria as a country separate from China.
March - Chiang Kai-shek returns to power. Chiang takes office as Chairman of the Military Council.
April - Communists capture Zhangzhou in Fujian province.
May - Communists score major victory in Zhejiang province.
May - Official signing of ceasefire agreement in Shanghai between China and Japan.
May - The 19th Route Army is sent to Fujian province to fight the Communists.
June - Fourth suppression campaign. Chiang Kai-shek declares that suppression of internal insurgence takes priority over fighting foreign invaders. Plans for the fourth suppression campaign are set. About 500,000 men would be involved. The campaign would being in the northern provinces.
June – Nationalist forces attack Communists in Hubei, Henan, and Anhui provinces.
September - Japan recognizes Manchukuo.
September - Communists in Hubei, Henan, and Anhui provinces breakout and retreat to the west. About 15,000 troops would eventually enter Sichuan province in the southwest in December.
October – Emergency meeting at Ningdu, Jiangxi province. Mao Zedong has serious disagreements with other Communist leaders and leaves Ningdu. His post is taken by Zhou Enlai.
December – Diplomatic relations restored between the Soviet Union and the Republic of China.
December - Nationalist troops gather in preparation for a fourth suppression campaign against Communists in Jiangxi province.