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Objective chronological listing of significant events leading up to modern China.

  • January - Communist forces capture Yichang island from the Nationalists.
  • February - Nationalists withdraw from Tachen island.
  • April - The Soviet Union agrees to supply key components to the People's Republic of China to build an atomic bomb.
  • April – At the conference of nonaligned nations in Indonesia, Zhou Enlai proposes negotiations with the United States on demilitarization of the Taiwan Strait, and negotiations with the Nationalists on the possibility of peaceful takeover of Taiwan.
  • May – Hu Feng, a proponent of liberal reform, is accused of heading a counter-revolutionary clique with the aim of overthrowing the People's Republic of China and restoring Nationalist rule. Hu is arrested and would remain in jail until 1979.
  • May - In Taiwan, former commander of the Nationalist army Sun Liren is put under house arrest on charges of sedition. Sun would be confined for 33 years until his death.
  • July – Mao Zedong makes a speech which advocates speeding up of the process of collectivization immediately.
  • August - First bilateral talks between the United States and the People's Republic of China are held in Geneva. The talks would go on for sixteen years.
  • October – The Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party passes a resolution to achieve full agricultural collectivization by April 1958.