Objective chronological listing of significant events leading up to modern China.
January - In Shanghai, students trained in the Soviet Union take over leadership of the Chinese Communist Party.
April – Second suppression campaign. Nationalist forces attack the Communist base in Jiangxi province with about 200,000 troops, mostly from the former northern factions. The campaign ends in failure by June.
April - Arrest and defection of high ranking Communist Gu Shunzhang leads to elimination of tens of thousands of Communists.
May - Provisional Constitution is passed by National Assembly of the Nanjing government. The National Government would be under temporary guidance of the Nationalist Party.
May - Guangdong province declares independence. Wang Jingwei becomes chairman of an alternative national government and demands resignation of Chiang Kai-shek.
June - Wang Ming becomes general secretary of the Communist Party.
July – Third suppression campaign. Chiang Kai-shek personally takes charge of a third suppression campaign against the Communists in Jiangxi province with about 300,000 men.
September - After fierce fighting, Communist forces in Jiangxi province begin to retreat.
September – Mukden (Shenyang) Incident in Manchuria. An explosion on the rail line outside the city of Shengyang in Manchuria leads to fighting between the Japanese army and Chinese forces. Chinese troops under the command of Zhang Xueliang are ordered to withdraw. Japanese troops would eventually occupy the whole of Manchuria.
September - Chiang Kai-shek abandons the suppression campaign in Jiangxi province and returns to Nanjing.
October - Japan ignores a request by the League of Nations to withdraw from Manchuria.
November – On the fourteenth anniversary of the Russian Revolution on November 7, the Chinese Communist Party sets up a Soviet republic in Jiangxi province. The state capital is located in Ruijin. Mao Zedong is the head of state. The title of Chairman Mao is used for the first time.
December - Reunification. As an agreement between Nanjing and Guangzhou, Chiang Kai-shek steps down. A united Nationalist government is again established in Nanjing.