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Objective chronological listing of significant events leading up to modern China.

  • January – Mao Zedong calls for an attack on Communist Party leaders. Liu Shaoqi is denounced. Liu is labelled "China's Khruschev".
  • January - The Soviet embassy comes under siege for 18 days.
  • February - February Revolt. Senior military commanders voice dissent against the Cultural Revolution.
  • February - After political cleansing in the military, Lin Biao takes effective control of the People's Liberation Army.
  • April - Wang Guangmei, wife of Liu Shaoqi, is publicly humiliated in front of a huge crowd at Tsinghua University in Beijing.
  • May – Communist agents instigate riots in Hong Kong, a British colony.
  • June - The People's Republic of China tests the first hydrogen bomb.
  • June to July – Wuhan incident. Armed conflicts in the triple city of Wuhan. Mao Zedong has to leave Wuhan due to a potential coup.
  • July - Large scale armed conflicts among different factions take place in major cities all over mainland China.
  • August - Large scale factional fighting involving thousands of people take place in Shanghai.
  • August - In Taiwan, Chiang Kai-shek signs order to extend free public education to nine years.
  • August – Mob attacks the British mission in Beijing. Other foreign embassies in Beijing are also attacked.
  • October – Communist Party orders students to return to class.
  • December – People's Liberation Army takes control of public security units.