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Objective chronological listing of significant events leading up to modern China.

  • January – Dwight D. Eisenhower inaugurated as President of the United States.
  • January – Third stage of the three-stage land reform in Taiwan. Nationalist government announces the Land-to-the-Tiller program. Absentee landlords receive stocks in government corporations in exchange for their expropriated land. Land ownership is turned into industrial investments.
  • February - Republic of China voids the Sino-Soviet treaty signed in 1945. Taipei would no longer recognize Outer-Mongolia (Mongolian People's Republic) as an independent country. It would be considered part of China.
  • March - Joseph Stalin dies in the Soviet Union.
  • May - The Three-Anti and Five-Anti campaigns in mainland China are put to an end.
  • July - A landing of Nationalist troops on Communist-held Dongshan island fails.
  • July – Truce signed to suspend the Korean War. The truce is not signed by Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea. About 14,000 of the 21,000 captured Chinese soldiers are sent to Taiwan instead of the mainland based on their preferences.
  • September – Principles of the First Five Year Plan are published in mainland China, covering 1953 to 1957.
  • September - Chiang Ching-kuo, son of Chiang Kai-shek, tours the United States and meets Dwight D. Eisenhower.
  • November - U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon visits Taipei and indicates that there would be no support for a Nationalist invasion of mainland China.