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Objective chronological listing of significant events leading up to modern China.

  • March – The Nationalists Party wins control of the National Assembly.
  • March – Song Jiaoren, acting President of the Nationalist Party, is assassinated in Shanghai.
  • April – Beijing government under Yuan Shikai agrees to borrow a £25 million loan from five foreign nations under harsh terms, without consent of the National Assembly.
  • July – The Second Revolution begins. Forces against Yuan Shikai rise up in Jiangxi province.  Seven provinces declare independence from Beijing. Anti-Yuan forces are soon defeated in a series of battles.
  • August – Sun Yat-sen leaves for Japan.
  • October – Beijing government signs railway agreement with Japan. Japan obtains extensive rights to operate railways in Manchuria.
  • October – A captive National Assembly in Beijing elects Yuan Shikai president of the Republic of China. The new government is recognized by foreign countries including Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and the United States.
  • November – The Nationalist Party is outlawed. Members of the Nationalist Party are removed from the National Assembly. There is no longer a quorum in the Assembly.
  • November – Agreement with Russia. Russia recognizes Outer Mongolia as a protectorate of China. China recognizes Outer Mongolia as an autonomous region.
  • December, 1913 - Sun Yat-sen establishes a military school in Tokyo with about 80 students.