January - Mao Zedong decides to remove Liu Shaoqi.
January – The Political Bureau in Beijing decides to draw up a proper program to revolutionize art and literature.
February - The first U.S. combat troops arrive in South Vietnam.
February – The United States starts systematic bombing of North Vietnam.
February – Jiang Qing, wife of Mao Zedong, travels to Shanghai in preparation for the Cultural Revolution.
February - Mao Zedong embarks on a long and slow trip across China, eventually arriving in symbolic Jinggang Mountain in May.
August – Ethnic Chinese and communist members supported by the People's Republic of China stage a failed uprising in Thailand.
September – Communists supported by the Chinese Communist Party stage a failed coup in Indonesia. Suharto replaces Sukarno as the president.
November – The Shanghai newspaper Wenhubao publishes an article criticizing Wu Han’s play, “Hai Rui Dismissed from Office”. Hai Rui is the character that represents Peng Dehuai, who was dismissed after criticizing Mao Zedong.